July 26, 2014


Making the strange sound familiar/The familiar sound strange


Simon Parkin's String Quartet No. 4 is seven movements long. Each movement is a variation on the original theme that is introduced in the first movement (played in the video by the VQ). The 5th movement is the exception - with a simple heading of "Senza Tempo," the instruction to the players is simply"Tune up, starting with the viola, as quietly and as sensitively as possible. Frame as a separate movement, but do nothing theatrical."


Filled with compact, dense harmonies, Parkin's composition is a quartet mashup of musical styles ranging from Beethoven to Richard Strauss, all tied together with Parkin's own take on variations of his opening theme. Written with flair and panache for interplay between the four instruments, the String Quartet No. 4 explores the idea of mixing musical styles and textures. The listener at once hears hints of familiar, recognisable music, which is then turned on its head to a completely different place.


Simon Parkin studied composition and piano at the University of Manchester and the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM), studying composition under Anthony Gilbert. He has had many broadcasts on BBC Radio, Classic FM, Channel 4 and ITV, and is a regular pianist with the International Musicians Seminar Prussia Cove, and the Schleswig Holstein Music Festival. He lives in Manchester, UK and teaches as Head of Musicianship at the RNCM.


Simon Parkin


Where are you from?

I was born in Manchester, and trained as a pianist at the Yehudi Menuhin School. This was specialised, and intensive, and in many ways composition was a refuge there from the terrors of my piano teacher. The contact there with talented string players, I think, gave me a feel for the medium of the string quartet, as well as exposure to many of the great works written for the medium. My composition at the school was encouraged by, among others, Nadia Boulanger, who visited towards the end of her life, and I was also able to meet Benjamin Britten and Michael Tippett.

What got you interested in composition?

It was an easy decision, then, to switch to composition as my main study at Manchester. My teacher there was Anthony Gilbert, a very perceptive and intelligent teacher with, it’s probably fair to say, a modernist aesthetic which I tried to simultaneously accommodate and subvert. After my training, I was employed at my places of former study. I presently head the Musicianship department at the RNCM in Manchester, where we combine aural training with improvisation, and I have taught composition and improvisation at both the Menuhin and the Purcell music schools.


Who have been your biggest musical influences?
My style of composition is, to say the least, eclectic. I have always tried to write what is inside my head, and the sound-track to my life is a confused mash-up of everything I have heard. My task as a composer, then, is to try to create some sort of coherence and order to my musical thought, as well as to create some interesting links and connections between styles and ideas. I am not interested in the search for the new as such; new becomes old increasingly quickly! I don’t reject modernism, either—it’s one more ingredient in the mix.

What are some challenges or advantages when writing for string quartet?
The challenge, and the pleasure, of writing for string quartet is that it is the perfect medium, beautifully balanced, integrated, with some of the dynamics of the family. So many masterpieces have been written for quartet that it is easy for the composer to be intimidated, or to reject the sounds that string instruments were created to make and treat them, instead, like badly designed percussion instruments. My style of composition, I feel, enables me to exploit, and maybe to extend just a little, the discoveries made by the great composers of the past.

Anything else you wish to say about your piece, String Quartet No. 4?

A brief description of the 4th quartet might give a little more insight into my approach to style: The original inspiration for the piece came from the Philip Dick science fiction novel, Ubik. I had originally planned to write a video opera based on this, but these plans broke down into a series of pieces. The quartet was a character study for Pat Conley, one of Dick’s many brittle and destructive female characters. In the book, she has the power to reset time, and she uses this power to try to create a more favourable outcome for herself. The quartet follows an emotional trajectory. The beginning is brash, overconfident and a bit bombastic (I thought Richard Strauss an appropriate model for this!). It turns out to be a hollow confidence, however, and the first movement (which is the one played in the video) starts to deteriorate and lose momentum. Pat presses the reset button for movements 2, 3 and 4, which make it increasingly obvious that things aren’t going to work out, becoming more fractured and desperate. The quartet then passes through a period of quiet introspection before re-emerging with a new-found inner strength. The use of late Beethoven references in the finale might sound hubristic, but it was the only thing I could think of to evoke the emotions I was after. The style, therefore, is the servant of the feeling.


I think that my aesthetic is the post-modernist one: to make the strange sound familiar, and the familiar sound strange.




The Villiers Quartet will perform Simon Parkin's String Quartet No. 4 for the VQ New Works Competition Final Round. Purchase tickets at 


July 26, 2014


Why do we do it?

Carmen's Blog



Quite often I've been asked about where the idea for doing our online-based music competition came from. Why on *earth* would the Villiers Quartet place out a call for new string quartets, choose six of them, video-record them, post them online (of all places), and leave the results of the final endgame to the mercy of the voting public?


There are several reasons for our musical enterprise. The first is that we wanted to open the platform of how classical music can be consumed. How can classical music - and string quartets - continue to be performed for audiences which are increasingly shrinking and ageing, especially with news of major orchestras struggling financially, and concert societies having less than one or two years left to survive?


As musicians, we are always looking to re-connect with our audience, and we have found an enthusiastic one online. The ease for sharing music on the internet has thrown a gauntlet to classical music performers in how we spread (and control) our music. The pop world has embraced this, but the classical world is left behind coughing in the dust. This is not to say that live performance has to disappear - there is nothing like hearing a string quartet intimately up close, seeing the rich personal interaction between players.


But today, audiences are used to downloading content at the keyboard. If I want a recording of the Tchiakovsky Violin Concerto, I no longer trudge to the Virgin Megastore (do they still exist? Apparently only in the Middle East). I instead go on YouTube, Spotify or Pandora, and get a plethora of recordings that I have the freedom to choose, listen to immediately, and compare. If I get bored by the performance, I can stop immediately with the click of a mouse. My listening habits have been formed by new technologies. Is this good or bad for classical music? I hate to judge, but the reality is that this is what my casual listening skills have evolved to, at this point.


A second reason for running our competition - and leaving it to the public vote "X-Factor style" - is coincidentally highlighted by a BBC article out today featuring cellist Julian Lloyd Webberwho hit out at juried competitions. Music competitions, he believes, are always fixed, undoubtedly by elite judges who might also have direct connections to the contestants. We all like to believe in the power of authorities who know what they are talking about. But isn't this the bane of classical music? Many times, I hear from non-musicians or friends when they attend a concert I've invited them to, feeling awkward and self-deprecating as they listen to the music, say to me nervously, "Well, I don't know much about classical music, so how can I tell what's good...?"


Because my non-musician friends feel they haven't been educated in the realm of classical music, they assume that whatever is served to them on that evening's programme is absolute gold dust (when it quite easily could be a dog's dinner). What happened to believing in our instinctive gut-reaction to music? What happened to trusting our personal taste? Music, like art, serves to cause some kind of emotional and intellectual reaction - when you walk into a museum and see a painting for the first time, it strikes you in a particular way. To disqualify your initial reactions to a piece of music - because you feel like you're not educated enough - means to distrust your feelings about art. The great pieces that have survived the ultimate test of time and become treasures within our culture have survived for one reason - because the public appreciated it.



And the final reason for running our competition? Simply, it's to be connected. To connect with the 147 composers who answered our call to share their music with us. To connect with the 6 semifinalists whose music we discovered by playing their pieces. To let the audience connect and engage with us - and the composers - as they click on our videos online. To connect with each other as they have a discussion about contemporary music. We wouldn't have been able to do this without the public vote.  You have the power. Any reaction is good and valid.  Trust your instincts.




July 25, 2014


Current Standings of the Online Semifinal Round:

One Week Left!


1) Simon Parkin

2) Matthew Browne

3) Jose Gonzalez Granero

4) Wei-Chieh Lin

5) Mihkel Kerem

6) Zhiyi Wang


One more week to go - Watch the videos of each composer's piece, and Vote to have your say on who will advance to the final round at www.villiersquartet.com/competition2014

July 24, 2014

String Quartet: Strength and Flexibility


"The song [Pasibutbut] is therefore a cycle of breaking and rebuilding in search of perfection"

Wei-Chieh Lin



Wei-Chieh Lin's comment about his piece, Pasibutbut, could equally be a comment on what we do as artists, and what we continually aim for as a string quartet. Equal parts strength, and equal parts flexibility, in the VQ we are constantly building our interpretations and ideas of music, finessing them, breaking them down and rebuilding to reach new levels of understanding.


We love the string quartet because of the camaraderie of four individuals sharing a musical idea together. You can imagine, however, that this requires a great amount of flexibility. With four people playing their own parts, there is a great amount of give and take, of push and pull between us, to create a solid performance of music. In many ways, it is this flexibility which gives the string quartet its absolute strength.


During this year's VQ New Works Competition, we're constantly reminded of the endless diversity of quartet music coming to us from around the world. For a genre that has been around for centuries, it is incredible to see new ideas, new approaches, and new techniques. Today, composers feel the burden of having to live up to the giants: the quartet's creators - Haydn and Mozart; the cycles too large to emulate - Beethoven, Shostakovich, Schubert, Bartok; not to mention the "modern" cycles - Elliot Carter, Philip Glass, R. Murray Schafer, Maxwell Davies, Alfred Schnittke. What compelled these composers to keep writing over and over for this genre? For composers of string quartet today, they have taken the brave leap to engage in the cycle of breaking and rebuilding to create something different, yet still remaining faithful to the strength of the string quartet.


Wei-Chieh Lin draws inspiration from music of his native country of Taiwan, using a song which embraces this theme of strength and flexibility. The title Pasibutbut is the name of a prayer song from the aboriginal Bunun Tribe of Taiwan, sung by a chorus of men from the tribe to call for a plentiful harvest season. The song begins with a core voice which initially sounds like a drone. As the song progresses, this voice slowly rises in register as other voices create a harmony around it, revealing a more sophisticated form of four-part harmony within the song.


In the string quartet Pasibutbut, Lin recreates the idea of a core voice, but also throws in the idea of individual sounds and textures dancing around this voice. In the opening, all instruments play a low G, but each person plays it differently - the harmony provides the unifying factor in the quartet, but individuality is also emphasized. The core voice incrementally changes within the ensemble, but in doing so, each member adds a new effect to create different colours around this changing voice. As soon as each harmony is established, the musicians create more sounds that try to "break" the harmony in order to move onto the next note.


Wei-Chieh Lin received his composition degrees at the Julliard School, where he studied under Milton Babbitt and wrote his dissertation on the music of Pierre Boulez. He is Co-Artistic Director of the ECCE Ensemble, and his music has been performed by Ensemble Intercontemporain, the Orchestre Philarmonique de Radio France, and the National Taiwan Symphony Orchestra.


Wei-Chieh Lin


Where are you from?

I am originally from Taichung, Taiwan but currently living in New York.


What got you interested in composition?

My parents are professional musicians and I was raised as a pianist. As much as I enjoy performing music, I have always been interested in creating something new and personal. Though I still perform, composing has become the center of my life.


Who have been your biggest musical influences?
Though Milton Babbitt was my only composition teacher while I was in school, I have been fortunate enough to have met and studied with numerous composers in the past few years. It is hard for me to say who has been my biggest influence, since each teacher has shaped my musical thinking in different ways. Certainly Babbitt is an important influence in how I think about form and structure, but I would say composers such as Pierre Boulez, Gérard Grisey, Helmut Lachenmann, and Mark Andre have influenced me the most in the recent years.

What are some challenges or advantages when writing for string quartet?
It is never easy to write for such an established genre, and even harder to escape its long traditions and repertoires. The advantage for me is that I love to write for the strings, and it is something I feel comfortable and confident with. The challenge is how to conceive the four instruments as a single unit yet having independent personalities with each instrument. String Quartet in my view has such a strong force and identity, but its flexibility and the homogeneous nature is without a doubt both an advantage and a challenge for me. But how does one create its own voice and path? And the question of texture, sound, and the possibilities of the string quartet is something I am still searching for.

Anything else you wish to say about your piece, Pasibutbut?

Pasibutbut is an usual piece for me since it is the first time that I used a pre-existing material in my music. The material is taken from the Bunun Tribe, one of the most prominent aboriginal tribes in Taiwan. After careful studying of various types and techniques found in the prayer song, I thought it would be an interesting idea to write a piece based on such rigid process. Having both the formal layout and the basic structure pre-determined for me, I was able to "fight" or react against such a confined space while creating enough flexibility for me to compose. In fact, I found this type of limitation or restriction quite liberating, it somehow offers more opportunities for things to grow on its own.



The Villiers Quartet performs an excerpt of Pasibutbut for the VQ New Works Competition online Semifinal Round. Watch the video at www.villiersquartet.com/competition2014


Wei-Chieh Lin's website: https://soundcloud.com/wei-chieh-lin







July 20, 2014



Composer Spotlight: Mihkel Kerem, Expression Suite



Written as a series of six short movements, Mihkel Kerem's Expression Suite is a tribute to the brief period of Expressionist music developed in the early 20th century by composers Arnold Schoenberg and his students Alban Berg and Anton Webern, promoters of the Second Viennese School.  As we began to play this piece, we were struck by the exquisite craftsmanship Mihkel demonstrated in his string quartet writing. He creates a work which combines the four instruments into a well-oiled machine.  Expression Suite almost serves as an intensified study of string quartet mechanics, all the while containing hallmarks of expressionist music, including an abrupt and angular musical language, fragmented and episodic motifs that jump out, and an intense emotional energy.


Mihkel has been composer-in-residence at the Schleswig Holstein Festival in Germany and the Aurora Chamber Music Festival in Sweden. His chamber and orchestral works have been performed by the Estonian National Symphony Orchestra, the Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Camerata Nordica, and the Chilingirian String Quartet. He lives in London, UK.

Mihkel Kerem


Where are you from?

I'm from Estonia and live in London.


What got you interested in composition?

At an early age I tried to set some notes down and after a while they started to make sense. It was then I was sent to composition lessons and the rest is history.


Who have been your biggest musical influences?
My biggest influences have been Shostakovich, Mahler, Ravel and perhaps also Stravinsky.

What are some challenges or advantages when writing for string quartet?
String quartet in my mind is the perfect ensemble to write for. It is the most compact ensemble possible with natural balance. The only real challenge in writing for string quartet is the avalanche of masterpieces already written for it over the last 250 years and competing with them feels somewhat unfair at times when presenting new music to ensembles.

Anything else you wish to say about your piece, Expression Suite?
Expressionism in music lasted for only very short period of time in history and I find more music could be written in this style; especially for string quartet. I wanted to write a series of miniatures that could be played in any number as a suite, or separately as encores or fillers in concert programs. The order of movements in the score is the order I wrote them but not necessarily the order they should be performed as a suite.

The Villiers Quartet perform Movement I of Mihkel Kerem's Expression Suite for the VQ New Works Competition online Semifinal Round.  View the video at www.villiersquartet.com/competition2014


Mihkel Kerem's website: http://mihkelkerem.com




July 19, 2014



Thoughts from James Dickenson


Donizetti's late Opera Don Pasquale, set during the First World War is a remarkable comic parody, a musical and comic masterpiece about the dangers, the very real dangers of marrying in Old Age. As much as I enjoyed performing this great work, sadly at half time, whilst waiting backstage, I had to endure our present day comic parody stroke tragedy, "Britain has Talent".  Although this was my virginal debut, even after 5 minutes it is quite clear that the one thing Britain seemed to lack, was just that, Talent. 


Curious and one has to wonder what happened, as arguably one of the most extraordinary aspects of this small island off the coast of France was it's ability to create firstly maverick eccentrics, and secondly to out and out geniuses. The list is quite endless, writers, musicians, artists, comics all, ground breaking, sometimes anti establishment, all seemingly shaped in some way by this country. If in my mind there is one that really stands (and trust me this is going somewhere) out, it is Dudley Moore. If you have never heard Dudley Moore playing in his Jazz Trio, do yourself a favour and buy the CD, you will thank me: "not at all" I hear myself say.... Comic, Musician, Organist, Composer and Pianist generally very clever guy and importantly for this meme, a contributor to Saturday television in 1960's.




There are many of these small miracles of music and humour, not only to they sound like Faure and Schubert capturing the ethos and "air" of the time but there are satirical and funny, poking fun at themselves. So what did happen, did we really lose our Talent?


Signing off for now JD



July 17, 2014





Composer Spotlight: Jose Gonzalez Granero, Quartet No. 1 'Noche del Amor Insomne'



"The whole piece is treated as a poem. Little motifs like verses rhyme within the music"

-Jose Gonzalez Granero


As string players, we have spent considerable time playing in ensembles for various large-scale productions of opera, ballet, and musical theatre, as well as performing in numerous recordings for film and television scores. From these experiences, we are no strangers to realising the power of music as an effective tool for dramatic structure. Music enhances so much of our collective storytelling. It often becomes the central motif for expressing a dramatic idea. What would Psycho be without Bernard Herrmann's score? How else could the finale in Don Giovanni be effective without Mozart's foreboding music? Composers find a way to become inspired by drama, and in turn the drama becomes tied to the music. The intersection at which music and other art forms meet is an inspirational moment.


VQ Composer Jose Gonzalez Granero wrote his Quartet No. 1 after a recalling a visit he made to the home of Spanish national poet Federico García Lorca in Granada. He took the title of his string quartet from the poem "Noche del Amor Insomne/A night of sleepless love," a poem from the collection of García Lorca's Sonnets of Dark Love. Written in one movement, this quartet has a distinctly Spanish flavour, and presents a feeling of beautiful lyrical drama. A lamenting theme is introduced by the cello, and then passed around each instrument. Pizzicati and quick arpeggios serve to emulate notes strummed on a guitar. There is also inspiration from opera here - Granero is Principal Clarinettist with the San Francisco Opera - and we can find hints of Puccini and La Boheme adding to the lyrical flavour of the string quartet.


Jose Gonzalez Granero is a clarinettist and composer living in the San Francisco Bay Area. He graduated from Granada Royal Conservatory, USC Thornton School of Music, and The Colburn School in Los Angeles. In addition to his position of Principal Clarinet with the San Francisco Opera Orchestra, Jose alternates his career as a composer, having written for the EOS Ensemble and the Granada Brass Quintet.




Jose Gonzalez Granero


Where are you from?

I am from a small village in the south of Spain called Iznatoraf.


What got you interested in composition?

Since I was 12 years old I was interested in composition. Although my first instrument was the clarinet, back then my interest for composition kept growing through the years.


Who have been your biggest musical influences?

I could say my biggest influences were Bach, Beethoven and Stravinsky.


What are some challenges or advantages when writing for string quartet?

I have to say that writing for string quartet is very complex specially knowing all the big repertoire by all the great composers. To start composing for string quartet is intimidating. As a woodwind player I had to study string instruments before writing anything. Also, I did a lot of listening. Once the piece was written I talked to some string players for their advice, this was the most valuable learning experience.


Anything else you wish to say about your piece, Quartet No. 1?

My piece was inspired by a poem by Federico Garcia Lorca: ‘Noche del Amor Insomne.’ In this piece, I included a violin cadenza which it is not very common in traditional string quartets form.


The Villiers Quartet will perform Jose's "String Quartet No. 1, Noche del Amor Insome" for the VQ New Works Competition Final Round. Purchase tickets at http://www.kingsplace.co.uk/whats-on-book-tickets/music/vq-new-works-competition-2014


Jose Gonzalez Granero's website: www.josegonzalezgranero.com





July 17, 2014

Current Standings of the Online Semifinal Round: Mid-July



1)  Simon Parkin

2)  Jose Gonzalez Granero

3)  Wei-Chieh Lin

4)  Matthew Browne

5)  Mihkel Kerem

6)  Zhiyi Wang


Still a few weeks to go - it could change at any moment! Curious about these pieces? Watch and Vote at www.villiersquartet.com/competition2014

July 13, 2014






Composer Spotlight: Zhiyi Wang "Three Overlapping Sounds"



Learning about the lives and histories of our VQ Composers provided a great joy for us throughout the course of preparing the New Works Competition. With entries from composers spanning all ages and nationalities this year, we were not surprised to learn that many composers often straddled more than one country in their "cultural DNA." For instance - a composer was born in one country, raised in another, and studied music in yet another different culture. With travel and communications making it easier to cross international boundaries, we recognise this common trend in the shaping of today's musicians and how we perceive music.


The cultural history of the Villiers Quartet is no different. Within the VQ, we have many strands of "cultural DNA" which add to the foundations of the group. As a quartet established in the United Kingdom, we also have collectively spent significant amounts of time studying and living in the United States, Japan, Canada, and the Philippines. In a nod to our homeland, we are a quartet that likes to feature works by English composers. These strands of various international backgrounds and history - whether achieved by chance or by choice - are all part of the mix of who we are.


Zhiyi Wang's story of cross-cultural history is similar to ours. Born in Beijing, he first studied composition at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, before moving to the United States to continue studying at Oberlin College and the University of Louisville. Coming across his string quartet, "Three Overlapping Sounds," we were struck by the amount of cultural influences in his work.


Written in three brief movements (the third movement being the longest), "Three Overlapping Sounds" captures an atmosphere with sensual textured harmonies, while maintaining a good balance of voicing within the quartet. In the second movement, he features a jazz riff in the cello part. For the upper three strings, he doubles the voices by having them play double stops (more than one string) to add another layer of sound. Halfway through the movement, the upper strings split the rhythm and create arpeggios that are spread delicately from the bottom up. This feature of rich harmonies is a thread of the entire piece, and one that reflected Wang's unique voice for the string quartet.


Zhiyi Wang was born in 1980. He was Composer-in-Residence at the Shanghai Opera House in 2006, and was a composer for the 2008 Beijing Olympics Opening Ceremonies. He is based in Beijing.





Zhiyi Wang

Zhiyi Wang



Where are you from?

I am from Beijing, China, where I am living and working now.


What got you interested in composition?

To express musically what I want to say upon my aesthetics, how interesting it is that these “twelve tones” could generate countless works with various styles and genres.


Who have been your biggest musical influences?

A lot, I was attracted to music of different styles since my childhood, classical, pop, jazz, 
electronic, folk, soundtrack, etc.  All type of music has its own characteristc and charm, I think an open-minded artist should be sensitive to absorb nutritions from anything musically inspiring.

What are some challenges or advantages when writing for string quartet?

As the four are all strings, the sound type and voice are limited, thus to explore some fresh expressions in a “string way” is quite amusing.


Anything else you wish to say about your piece?

In this piece, many occasions there are more than four voices so that complicated harmonies could  be achieved to create a rich, delicate and expressive quartet sound.


The Villiers Quartet performs "Part Two" of Zhiyi Wang's "Three Overlapping Sounds" for the VQ New Works Competition online Semifinal Round. View the video at www.villiersquartet.com/competition2014


Zhiyi Wang's website:  www.z-1studio.com






July 12, 2014

Nick's Blog





My thoughts have been occupied this week by the impact of systematic cuts to the Arts, and its effect on music in schools. I have recently experienced this first hand after visiting a handful of primary schools in different parts of the country.


The first thing that hit me was just how little instrumental teaching was happening in some schools. It is not unusual for a school musical evening to now consist primarily of children performing to backing tracks. Don't get me wrong, the performances themselves are often very creative and sometimes in the case of the dance ensembles, choreographed by the children themselves. The small instrumental element is represented by those children who learn their instruments outside school, privately or with a parent. I don't mean to generalise about this and I should point out that there is another side to the coin.


I also visited a school where instrumental teaching still appeared to be thriving. This school was obviously managing to cling on to its peripatetic music service. The class teachers (who probably remember how instrumental music in schools used to be) seem desperate to keep the home fires burning. But what becomes evident in this situation is the difficulty to maintain standards as the instrumental lessons get squeezed. Most of the time, we're talking about a 30 minute group lesson with 3 children. That's 10 minutes each! In real terms, after spending 2 minutes getting the instrument out of its case (and putting it away), a broken string would mean the end of the lesson!

Another model for instrumental music in schools is the huge sticking plaster known as "wider opportunities." This, I imagine started life as a box ticking exercise, and on paper it looks pretty good. Alerted to the fact that instrumental music in schools was becoming extinct, the solution was to get everybody in a classroom playing the same instrument for a year. As a result, it's not unusual to walk into schools and find an arsenal of trumpets ready to “lock and load.” Unfortunately, there are some schools which acquired the instruments for wider ops, but now don't have the resources to properly support it. Then you’re left with a Performing Arts space which now houses a tenor horn graveyard...

Allow me to transport you back to the early eighties and to my primary school in Rotherham. I started learning the recorder using tablature like a lot of kids my age did. I can't remember a time when I wasn't playing chamber music in some shape or form, even if it was sharing a music stand with a flautist as we battled through "Cherokee Chief"! I was asked on the strength of those experiences (even with my "goldfish" recorder technique) whether I'd like to play the cello...and the rest (as they say) is history.


Rotherham music service was a crack team of enthusiastic and exciting professional teachers. They would come into school en masse and give ensemble performances displaying an infectious camaraderie and communication. This rapport existed because the teachers spent a lot of time working together. There were at least two youth orchestra rehearsals every week, which the majority of instrumental teachers would attend and coach their particular sections. I remember my very first experience of string quartet playing, after I had only been studying the cello a couple of years. It was a weekend chamber music course and the initiative of one of the string teachers who was passionate about quartet playing and wanted to share his burning enthusiasm.

I know from talking to many of my colleagues that this situation was not unusual and there were other notable music services in Leicester and Bedfordshire for example, who are now sadly struggling against cuts in funding.

I have to say at this point that there is an abundance of great teachers out there right now. They still have all that burning enthusiasm that they're desperate to share. I've seen amazing things happen in response to these cuts.... individual instrumental teachers holding 60 children spellbound with their charisma and instrumental virtuosity. In some ways these teachers have had to evolve with the environment and now need a comprehensive "tool kit" to deal with anything that might get thrown at them.

The problem is, moral is low in many areas of the teaching profession. These amazing people are now under so much pressure to get results that their passion and enthusiasm is waning. Many teachers are under much scrutiny from regulating bodies and effectively encouraged not to teach in a creative way. There is no longer space to nurture individual talent. This system of box ticking is eroding the rapport that existed between the teachers and making our schools soulless. My only hope is that somehow we find a way to increase the resources and inject life back into our music services and schools again.

Let's keep the ukuleles and the recorders. They are an entry point for children to quickly find a musical voice, and can be introduced in the classroom by every teacher. There comes a point, though, when some of those children need a leg up to the next rung of the musical ladder--the watchful eye of that teacher who recognises their talent and can say “How about trying the cello now? There’s one in the music cupboard with your name on it.”